Emergency and Disaster Management/ Journal Article Review Critique

Emergency and Disaster Management/ Journal Article Review Critique

Abstract
The abstract is a brief overview of the article and is usually the first part of an article after the title and author’s name. The abstract states the problem or issue that was investigated and provides an overview of the investigation and the findings. Abstracts are typically 100 – 150 words in length. Students who conduct research using the library’s search engine are frequently provided with the abstract in the search results. The abstract allows the student to quickly understand what the research article addresses without the student having to read the entire article.
Introduction
The introduction of the research article provides a statement of the problem that is investigated. Sometimes, the researcher provides background information regarding the significance of the problem and why it is worthy of investigation. This is known as answering the so what question. In other words, why is this problem or issue worthy of investigation? Occasionally, a researcher will provide a hypothesis; that is, a specific statement describing the expected outcome of the research project.
Literature Review
The introduction is followed by a literature review. The purpose of a literature review is for the researcher to address the previous research on this issue and show gaps in the research that the current project is expected to address. A literature review provides a justification for the current research. The literature review sometimes helps define variables by defining key terms or explaining how abstract concepts, such as fear or satisfaction, will be interpreted for the purpose of the study. The literature review is sometimes represented by titles such as Literature Review, Theoretical Considerations, or Previous Research.
Methods
The methods section may be the most important section in helping the student discriminate between articles in selecting an appropriate one. Some studies are nothing more than reviews of other research or extensive literature reviews. These studies may appear to be a research article as they have an abstract, introduction, and literature review. However, when the student reviews the methodology section, he or she will see that no participants were used, no data were collected, and the data were not analyzed. Rather, the researcher simply provides a review of the previous research. Students are to avoid these types of articles. There are several key features of the methods section to which the student should be aware.
Participants. The methods section of a research article typically identifies the population to which the results of the study are intended to be generalized or applied. From that population, the research will select a sample of participants for the study. In the methods section, the researcher typically identifies who the sample participants are and how they were selected. A notable exception to this is when the research is qualitative and based upon a case study. In that case, the individual or individuals in the case may be described without reference to a specific population/
Data collection instrument. The basis of research lies within the data that are collected and analyzed. Therefore, research articles frequently identify the method in which data are collected. For example, the researcher may use a survey, in which case, the researcher will discuss the survey details. Researchers may also rely upon observation of a phenomenon or some other type of measurement to collect data.
Data analysis. The methods section will specify how data are analyzed. Most research is quantitative, which means that the data will be analyzed using some statistical procedure. Students should be alert to terms such as t-Test, one-way ANOVA, MANOVA, or chi-square as these are examples of statistical procedures. There are numerous other statistical procedures; however, these terms should give the student an idea as to the names of these procedures. In rare cases, students may find a qualitative study where a thick, rich description of the phenomenon is used, rather than statistical analysis. In qualitative analysis, the researcher writes extensively on the phenomenon in order to describe, in detail, the results of the study. Because of the thick, rich description, qualitative research articles are much longer than quantitative research articles.
Results
In this section, the researcher summarizes the results of his or her research. In quantitative research, this section is frequently characterized by the numerical assessment of the data. This section may also be characterized by tables or graphs that describe the data and the results. The researcher may also use this section to accept or reject the study’s hypothesis.
Discussion/Conclusion
It is important to note that the last sections of a research article may not be exactly as outlined in this document. For example, some researchers combine the results and discussion sections while others may combine the discussion and conclusion sections. In other cases, these may be three distinct sections. Nevertheless, the student should be aware that the purposes of these sections are contained within the latter part of the research article regardless of how they are organized and titled.
In the discussions and conclusion section, the researcher summarizes the results of the study. The researcher will usually discuss whether the results of this study are consistent with the findings that were either presumed, usually through the hypothesis, or contained in previous research. If some or all of the findings are inconsistent, the researcher may offer a rival explanation for these results. Finally, the researcher may offer suggestions for future research.

Other Paper Information
The paper is a critique; therefore, no direct quotations are permitted. Although I do not allow quotations in the paper, I feel this is an appropriate time to introduce students to the use of quotations. Over the years, I have found where some students use a lot of quotations to get a paper to a specified length. This is an inappropriate use of quotations. Generally, quotations are rarely used in a paper and only for specific purposes. These purposes include:
• presenting a clear, accurate discussion of the ideas of others where it is necessary to quote those ideas word for word (this does not mean you always quote the ideas of others; rather, you should always consider paraphrasing and save the quotations for extremely unusual or novel ideas);
• highlighting or giving added emphasis to the words of a particularly important and authoritative source on your topic;
• identifying historical comments, such as President’s Roosevelt day of infamy speech; and
• comparing and contrasting ideas and positions on important issues.
In all cases, when a student uses a quotation, he or she has an obligation to discuss it and illustrate its relevance to the paragraph or issue being discussed.
Additionally, no outside sources other than the textbook are permitted. Any information or materials you use to support your argument must be paraphrased. Do not included a References page with your paper. The only reference listed in your paper will be the article and that will be at the top of your paper.
Paper Setup
Beginning on the page 9, the student will find format information for establishing the paper. This information includes the reference for the journal article at the top of the page and the subsequent headers that students are to use and guide their writing. As this instruction paper already has a running head, the sample running head for the students’ papers will not be included; however, students are to include a running head in their critique papers.



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